Tag Archives: Rajasthan

Inclusive Cities:Role of Poor, Non-Poor and Government: Rajasthan consultation

PRIA with its local partner Nahru Yuva Mandal is organising a state level consultation in Rajasthan addressing the issue of Inclusive cities on 19 September 2014 at Jaipur, Rajasthan

Rajasthan is the largest state of India in terms of area and 8th in terms of population. The population of state, as per Census 2011, was about 7 crores. About 25% of Rajasthan population reside 184 Urban Local Bodies in the state, including the 6 large municipal corporations. The 23% of urban population in Rajasthan are slum-dwellers. Jaipur city, the state capital, has a population of 31 lakh and accounts for 17% of total urban population of Rajasthan. The decadal population growth of Jaipur city was 32% during 2001 – 11. About 10% of the city population is officially under below poverty line while about 5 lakh populations live in 238 ‘listed’ slums of city. Despite several slum improvement programmes andsocial welfare development schemes, poverty persists unabated and the gap between rich and poor is growing extensively.Urban Poverty is visibly present and perpetuating the state, as reflected by table below.

Status of basic services in slums of Rajasthan and Jaipur (Census, 2011)
Slum Household Characteristics               Rajasthan                                         Jaipur
Total Number                                            3,83,134                                         60,222
Not owning House                                      17 %                                                 16 %
Without Water Source                                31 %                                                 33%
Without Electricity                                        2 %                                                   5%
Without Toilets                                            78%                                                  46 %

All the data and population estimates suggest that India is on the brink of becoming a highly urbanized country. But the country lacks appropriate urban policies and programmes to make cities inclusive and happy place to live in. Available infrastructures in cities are over-stretched and all residents have difficulties of different degrees and orders. As the findings and experiences from different works and studies suggest, cities seems to be fragmented into different social and economic pieces- pulling each other apart rather than joining hands together to march ahead. Urban poor live in pathetic situations, middle class struggle with erratic urban services available to it, and rich and powerful have growing concerns about their safety and securities. Cities have turned into webs of difficult informalities and so, a varying sense of exclusion is felt by all categories of inhabitants. The problem is compounded by the fact that large numbers of people live in cities but very few have sense of ownership for their cities. Unless all residents of a city care for their city, it would be difficult to think of an inclusive city, which ensures minimum basic amenities and social securities to one and all.

Rationale for Collaboration:
• Do people belong to cities and are cities ‘owned by’ people? Society is web of relationship existing in ‘rural’ and ‘urban’ localities. In rural areas the relationships are straightforward, rooted, age old and binding. There is a sense of belongingness among the people. Whereas the relationships in urban areas are individualistic, specific and service oriented. The diaspora of population in urban areas belong to different geographically roots and there is no sense of belongingness towards the city among the urban population.
• Who facilitates relationship between poor and non-poor? A city is inhabited by poor and non-poor. Poor are the service providers and non-poor are manifested as middle class, clubs (lion, sports, rotary) media, academia, business, CSOs etc. The relationships among poor and non-poor are largely defined by services offered by the poor and received by the non-poor section of the society. The emotional part of relationship which is reflected in trust and dependency is often undermined. The mutual service based relationship among poor and non-poor however remains informal and unorganized. Therefore the pertinent question here is who facilitates this exchange of service? Ideally municipality of the city should facilitate this exchange of service but in reality no such facilitation happens. This should get institutionalized in order to develop the city.
• Institutionalized mechanism to promote relationship: A first step to building inclusive institutions is to ensure that the poor are representative of and accountable to all parts of society, and most notably to the middle class. Institutionalization of service exchange between the service provider (poor) and service seekers (non-poor) will lead to healthy functioning of the city. This will benefit both the poor and non-poor. Example: Public health, sanitation, conservancy and solid waste management etc.
An ‘inclusive city’ is a place where everyone, regardless of their economic means, gender, race, ethnicity or religion, is enabled and empowered to fully participate in the social, economic and political opportunities that cities have to offer. (i) the urban non-poor – mainly the urban middle class, civil society and other urban non-poor groups (resident welfare associations, rotary club members, youth groups and so on) should become sensitised towards the problems of urban poor and contribute in making lives of urban poor better. (ii) The urban local bodies are strengthened with appropriate powers and authorities so that they could deliver to the expectation of their people, especially the urban poor. (iii) Converging all the city voices on one platform for collective actions towards inclusive city development.

Aims of the State Consultation:

PRIA works for betterments of living-conditions of urban poor through reforming and strengthening urban local governance and promoting citizens’ participation. With the aim to bring all stakeholders together and evolve a collective thinking and action on urban issue, this state level consultation on “Collaborative Actions for Inclusive Cities: Roles of Poor, Non-Poor and the Governments” is being organized. The purpose of the consultation is to (i) facilitate collaborative actions for improvement in urban services and (ii) promote inclusive city development jointly led by Poor, Non-Poor and the Governments.

Programme Schedule of the Consultation
राज्य स्तरीय चर्चा
‘समावेशी शहरों के लिए साझा सहयोग‘ शहरी गरीब ,गैर-गरीब और सरकार की भूमिका पर
आयोजकः-प्रिया, राजस्थानएवंनेहरू युवा मंडल
दिनंाकः-19सितम्बर , 2014 स्थानः- आई.डी.एस. जयपुर, राजस्थान

समय                                                          विषय                                                                           संदर्भ व्यक्ति
10:00 – 10:30 am                                    पंजीकरण                                                                       प्रिया, जयपुर
10:30 – 10:35 am                                     स्वागत                                                                       श्री प्रणव प्रवीण
वरिष्ठ कार्यक्रम अधिकारी
प्रिया, जयपुर

10:35 – 10:55 am                        राजस्थान में शहरी लोगों की समस्याऐं                                           प्रोफेसर वी.एस.व्यास
सेवानिर्वित, विकास अध्ययन संस्थान, जयपुर

10:55 -11:05 am              राजस्थान में शहरी गरीबी और शहरी प्रशासन पर प्रस्तुतीकरण                          डाॅ. अंशु सिंह
कार्यक्रम अधिकारी, प्रिया, जयपुर
11:05 -12:00 pm                                           लोगों की आवाज                                                कार्यक्रम प्रबंधक, प्रिया, जयपुर

प्रतिनिधि -कच्ची बस्ती सुधर समिति
गैर-सरकारी संस्था -उन्नति और एस.आर.के.पी.एस.
शैक्षिणक समुदाय, निवासी सुधार संस्था, व्यापार मंडल

लाइन्स क्लब डा. रणवीर सिंह (सूत्रधार)

श्री मनोज राय (सह सूत्रधार)
निदेशक, प्रिया, नई दिल्ली
12:00 -12: 45pm                                         विचार प्रस्तुतीकरण

1. श्रीमती ज्योती खण्डेलवाल                                                    श्री मनोज राय
महापौर, जयपुर नगर निगम
2. डा. रतना जैन
महापौर, कोटा नगर निगम

12:45 -13:15 hrs                                           चर्चा                                                                       श्री मनोज राय

13:15:-  13:40 hrs                                        भावी दिशा                                                                श्री मनोज राय

13:40 -13:55 hrs                                         उद्वोधन                                                                  डा. अरून चतुर्वेदी
माननीय राज्य मंत्री
सामाजिक न्याय एवं अधिकारिता विभाग
13:55 -14:00 hrs                                       धन्यवाद ज्ञापन                                                         सुश्री स्वातिसुब्रमण्यम
कार्यक्रम अधिकारी, प्रिया दिल्ली

14: 00 hrs                                                   वदूंतके भोजन

‘Story’ of the Urban Poor – Rajasthan

PRIA is running a national level campaign for ‘Putting governance of Urban Poverty on Political Agenda’ which becomes even more significant in respect to the up-coming Lok Sabha elections. Recently PRIA organised a state level consultation in Jaipur, addressing and highlighting various issues of the urban poor in the state of Rajasthan and in Jaipur. Here is a look at the quick facts shared at the consultation:

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Community can influence Policy Changes!

PRIA- Jaipur

Recently on Terra Urban you read about the intense advocacy by PRIA in Rajasthan regarding the rights of slum dwellers. While discussing the plight of widows and old women in availing pension schemes with Mr. Pratap Singh Khachariawas, MLA, Civil Lines, Jaipur, community members together with PRIA expressed how the irrational condition of permitting the benefit to only those widows/ old women who do not have a family member above 25 years is still valid in the state. As you read in the article Addressing the Problems of Slum Dwellers Mr. Pratap Singh Khachariawas further raised the demand of the community in the Vidhan Sabha.

A breakthrough regarding the same happened when Chief Minister Ashok Gehlot announced the Rajasthan Budget 2013-14 in beginning of March 2013 and addressed the long pending demand with regard to state’s old age pension and widow pension scheme.  Chief Minister announced to abolish a condition of not having a member above 25 years of age in family to become eligible for the schemes!

This breakthrough is just one of the signs of how the strength and voice of the community can influence policy changes!

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Rajasthan is listening – House urban poor and give them the land title – says State Principal Urban Development Secretary

Shared by Prakash Pathak, PRIA and Rajasthan-PRIA
Source: The Hindu on 8 June 2012

On June 2, PRIA and SPARC held a State Level Consultation at Jaipur for Strengthening Civil Society Voices on Urban Poverty in India. Various aspects about Rajiv Awas Yojana, facilities to the slum dwellers, number of slums, participation of the slum dwellers themselves in the development process and aspects of tenure and livelihood were discussed.
Mr. Sandhu, the State Principal Urban Development Secretary was positive and declared that a the government is undertaking a ‘Pilot Project at Sanjay Nagar in Jaipur’. He was of the opinion that the State Government should not just provide housing but also give tenure rights to the slum dwellers and should prepare an Act for the same.
Hope Civil Society keeps a watch on these plans by the government and ensures active participation of the slum dwellers and the civil society at large!!

Catch the news below:

Call to Strengthen Civil Society Engagement & Promote Community Participation to Address Urban Poverty: Rajasthan

Shared by Tripti Sharma, PRIA – Rajasthan,

Source: Sunday Times -Jaipur, http://lite.epaper.timesofindia.com/mobile.aspx?article=yes&pageid=3&edlabel=TOIJ&mydateHid=03-06-2012&pubname=&edname=&articleid=Ar00301&format=&publabel=TOI

The urban poor need to be accorded the highest priority in the planning process for cities and the civil society’s role should be strengthened in resolving the issues of urban poverty with the emphasis on community participation in the initiatives for housing, livelihood generation, expansion of civic amenities and conversion of slums into modern colonies.

These views emerged at a day-long multi-stakeholder consultation on “Strengthening Civil Society Voices on Urban Poverty in Rajasthan” organized at the Institute of Development Studies here today. The participants were mainly the policy planners, elected representatives of urban local bodies, activists, government officers, civil society representatives and residents of slum localities in Jaipur.

The consultation helped in evolving a collective understanding on methods and approaches to address the issues of the poor people living in cities. It was organized jointly by the Society for Participatory Research in Asia (PRIA), Society for Promotion of Area Resource Centre (SPARC) .

The recognition of urban poverty and its scale, manifestation, causes and consequences remain obscure in the current development planning process. In Jaipur alone, 22.4 % of the population resides in the slum areas and the administration listed as many as 238 slum locations in 2011. The slum population in Jaipur is estimated at 4.87 lakhs. These were some of the findings revealed in a presentation made at the consultation.

The prominent speakers at the consultation were Mr. Sundar Burra, retired IAS and Advisor PRIA and SPARC, Mr. G.S. Sandhu, Principal Secrertary, Local Self Government Department, Rajasthan, Mr. K.B. Kothari, Member, CTAG, and Managing Trustee, Pratham-Rajasthan, Jaipur, Ms. Aditi Mehta, Additional Chief Secretary, Department of Social Justice & Empowerment, Rajasthan, Jaipur Mayor, Ms. Jyoti Khandelwal, and Kota Mayor, Ms. Ratna Jain.

According to the PRIA State Coordinator, Mr. Krishan Tyagi, the consultation strived to sensitize and educate different sections of society about the need to strategically and collectively focus on the issues relating to urban poverty, which is typically equated with slums and squatter settlements. A weak civil society voice on urban planning has led to a situation in which the demand for inclusive and poor-driven urban development, including housing, sanitation and livelihoods in cities, has failed to influence the public policies and programmes in this sector.

The PRIA Director, New Delhi, Mr. Manoj Rai, said the civil society needs to articulate its voice for ensuring that the urban poor are not only included but they actually drive the implementation of schemes such as the Rajiv Awas Yojana (RAY), which envisages a slum-free India. The benefits of various slum improvement programmes launched in Rajasthan since 1973 have not accrued to the target population in real terms, said Mr. Rai.

Mr. G.S. Sandhu said the pilot project under the RAY would be started shortly at a cost of Rs. 400 crore at the Sanjay Nagar Bhatta Kachi Basti in Jaipur. This will pave the way for full-fledged implementation of the ambitious scheme, under which the state government intends to give the land title to the people getting the allotment. The state government will also bring an Act for this purpose, said Mr. Sandhu.

Mr. Sundar Burra said the RAY should not be treated as the last word on urban housing. For addressing urban poverty, the efforts should go beyond housing alone and address other equally important issues of livelihood and excess to resources. The social infrastructure, comprising health and education, should also be strengthened with the community participation, he suggested.

Ms. Aditi Mehta said the development of social infrastructure should be accompanied by the drive for cohesion in the society, as the migrant population was often found to have stratification on the basis of caste and region, which gave rise to tension and conflict. She noted that urban poverty was a greater challenge in comparison with the rural poverty and laid emphasis on carrying out meaningful surveys to find out the correct picture.

Mr. K.B. Kothari pointed out that the government officers themselves sometimes did not have proper information about the infrastructure and background of slums and cited the instance of Bhatta Basti slum, which is situated on the forest land. He called for development of leadership and management in the urban sector and suggested that the community centres numbering about 100 in Jaipur be utilized for education, health care and employment training.

Ms. Jyoti Khandelwal said there were several technical problems involved in the functioning of Jaipur Municipal Corporation and there were several areas in which it did not enjoy unfettered powers. Even the RAY would involve the Jaipur Development Authority as its implementing agency. She said she was interacting regularly with the slum dwellers and was willing to settle their grievances.

Ms. Ratna Jain pointed out that poor people were not confined to slums alone and suggested that livelihood generation schemes be promoted to address the issue of urban poverty. She said the minimum wages at the rate of Rs. 135 per day should be ensured to all workers and benefits of Swarna Jayanti Shahari Rozgar Yojana be extended to the deserving people.

Dr. Adesh Chaturvedi, State Coordinator, Capacity Development for Local Governance, UNDP, Rajasthan, suggested that the private investors be taken to the slum colonies and encouraged to launch construction of multi-storey residential buildings and take up employment generation projects.

The residents of several slum colonies of Jaipur, who were invited as the people from the grassroots to the consultation, narrated their tales of poverty and hardships and appealed to the policy makers to devise ways for reducing their suffering. The technical officers of RAY and officials from the government departments dealing with urban development and social security listened to their grievances and promised to evolve strategies to deal with them.

State/ City Consultations on Strengthening Civil Society Voices on Urban Poverty – Rajasthan/ Kerala

PRIA and SPARC along with a number of partner civil society and community based organization are working towards strengthening civil society voices and actions on ever increasing issues in urban poverty in different states of the country.

One of the major inadequacies in taking forward the agenda of inclusion and active participation of the urban poor in various government run programmes is weak civil society engagement with issues of urban poverty and urban governance. There are just a handful of civil society organizations in the country, which have focused on organizing and mobilizing the urban poor to claim their rights and thereby to secure active participation and ownership of urban development programmes. There is no national network of civil society, or even a sub- sectorial coalition, that focuses on these issues on a sustained basis.  A strong civil society engagement would be crucial at city level and also at the state government level; however, engagement at the national level can then be valuable to ensure supportive policies and guidelines from the central government and other agencies like the Planning Commission.

With the aim to strengthen this civil society participation, we are organising State and City Level Consultation in Kerala (Trivandrum and Kollam) and Rajasthan (Jaipur)

In Kerala, city and state level multi stakeholder consultations, is to be held respectively on 26th May and 28th May in Kollam and Trivandrum, and is aimed at sharing (cum action planning on the basis) of collective experiences.. The objective of this consultation is to evolve a collective understanding through dialogues on methods and approaches to address the issues of urban poverty in the state. This consultation would also strive to sensitize and educate different sections of society about the need to strategically and collectively focus on issues of urban poor. We are expecting participants from community, civil society, academia, media and government to participate in this consultation.

In Jaipur, we are organizing a state level workshop on 2nd June, 2012, at Institute for Development Studies (IDS), Jhalana Institutional Area, Jaipur, to ensure supportive strategies and tactics for enhancing community participation and ascertaining people participation by empowering the stakeholders by the knowledge about various government run programmes and schemes.

For more details on the consultations please be free to contact TerraUrban!

Status and opportunities of development for Urban Poor/slums dwellers in Jaipur city

By: Mr. Krishan Tyagi, State Coordinator, PRIA- Rajasthan

Rajasthan has 68,621012 Population with share of 24.89 percent (17,080,776) of urban population[i]. Rajasthan has 184 Urban Local Bodies i.e. 6 municipal corporations & 178 municipal councils/boards. 22.4 percent (38, 26,160) of urban population have to reside in slum areas in Rajasthan[ii].

Jaipur city is state capital of Rajasthan. Jaipur city has 3,073,350 populations with 17% share of total urban population of Rajasthan. Jaipur city has 32.2 percent decadal growth in population.

Urban Poverty and slums is one of the most critical problems in urban development today. In Jaipur too, they are a serious issue.  10 percent of the population is below the poverty line in Jaipur[iii].

6, 88,430 (22.4 %) urban populations have to reside in slum[iv] areas in Jaipur city in 2011[v]. 238 slums[vi] location are listed by administration in 2011.  Processes of slum development are jointly administered by Jaipur Municipal Corporation (JMC) in 192 slums and by Jaipur Development Authority (JDA) in 46 slums. Jaipur city has enlisted 59476 slums household[vii].

The biggest katchi basti in Jaipur is located east of Jawahar Nagar along bypass road where about 7000 families are residing. The slum dwellers often get located on any vacant plot in the city convenient to them. These are predominantly the environmentally sensitive locations in the city including forests, flood prone areas, etc. In Jaipur, majority of the slums are located on forestland. 27% are in flood prone areas and 18% along main roads[viii].

The slum improvement programmes have been initiated in the city from 1973 onwards. The main programme includes the National Slum Development Programme (NSDP), Valmiki-Ambedkar Awas Yojana (VAMBAY), BSUP (JNNRUM) and other improvement programmes by JDA. Though, BSUP has great potential to improve the condition of slum dwellers of Jaipur in mission mode. But, unfortunately benefits of BSUP have not been much utilized. However, large numbers of slums have been benefited with basic infrastructure i.e. pucca pathways, public stand posts for drinking water, streetlights, public latrines and open drains, primary health care centres and shelter. Pucca houses were also provided under various initiatives i.e. 4500 pucca houses; those washed away due to heavy floods in 1980s, 1940 houses have been constructed for slum dwellers under VAMBAY[ix].

With an aim of creating a slum-free India, central government has launched phase-1 of Rajiv Awas Yojana (RAY) to facilitate affordable housing for slum dwellers.   The Centre would provide financial assistance to States willing to assign property rights to slum dwellers for provision of shelter and basic civic and social services for slum re-development and for creation of affordable housing stock under the RAY scheme. The scheme is expected to cover about 250 cities, mostly with population of more than one lakh across the country by the end of 12th Plan (2017). The scheme will progress at the pace set by the States. All six municipal cooperation (Jaipur, Ajmer-Puskar, Udaipur, Kota, Jodhpur and Bikaner) of Rajasthan are covered in phase-1 of RAY[x].

RAY has inordinate potential to benefits slum dwellers of Jaipur city. It has unique features to eradicate urban poverty like a) entitlement of property b) delisting of habitation from slum list, those have minimum basic facilities ( pacca pathway), water, toilet, pacca house, drainage) and located on non-hazardous areas.

JDA and JMC nodal agencies in Jaipur city have started the preparation to implement RAY. Slum listing and profiling work is in progress to prepare Slum Free City Plan of Action (SCFP). On the basis of first hand finding JMC officials informed half of the slums in Jaipur (about 100) have basic facilities, which are just required legal notification for delisting from exiting list of slums. Herewith, we are mentioning few names of the slums for reference i.e. Bais Godam (Chota & Bada), Ambedkar Nagar (Kartarpura), Hathroi Bawadi and Mukhya Sodala. However, a large number of slum dwellers have to live in very much pathetic condition for example Phush ka Bangala (near main railway station), near Mental hospital Azad Nagar/Raja Park and inside of Amani Sha ka Nala[xi].

RAY is a comprehensive scheme to make Jaipur a slum free city, if it would be executed with motivation and right spirit.  State political leaders need to give more attention to avail the benefits of RAY. However, state political leaders seem more keen to provide houses in the rural areas. Under the ambitious scheme named Mukhyamantri Gramin BPL Awas Yojana’ Rs. 3,400 crore had been arranged as a loan from HUDCO for providing dwelling units to 7 lakh BPL families in the next three years. Together with the Indira Awas Yojana works, housing facility would be extended to a total of 10 lakh BPL families in this period.  But, those who, reside in slums are needed more attention

5.6 percent of Rajasthan total populations and 22.4 percent of urban populations have to reside in slums; these people also need attention of political leader in order to get benefitted by national scheme like RAY, which has large proportion of share as the grant given by center. If, state political leaders would also pay attention on executing RAY with the same spirit of  ‘Mukhyamantri Gramin BPL Awas Yojana’, which government takes even loan to execute the scheme.

[i] Census, 2011

[ii] Estimated population in period of 2011-2017, Source: Report of the Committee on Slum Statistics, GOI, MoHUPA, National Building Organization, New Delhi, August, 2010.

[iii] Source: JMC, 2006; City Development Plan (CDP), Jaipur, under JNNURM, Department of Local Self Government, GOR, April, 2006.

[iv] Definition of slum:  Katchi Basties/slums have been thus named in Jaipur, as the rural migrants who inhabit these live in kutcha house in clusters. The houses in the slums are mostly made of walls with mud mortar and roofs. These katchi basties can also be termed as ‘squatter settlements’. These basties lack the basic infrastructure facilities that are required for a decent quality of life. Source: City Development Plan (CDP), Jaipur, under JNNURM, Department of Local Self Government, GOR, April, 2006.

[v] According to Census 2001, Jaipur city has 350,353 populations (15.07% of total urban population). With Estimated 22.4 % growths in Rajasthan Urban population according to Report of the Committee on Slum Statistics, GOI, MoHUPA, National Building Organization, New Delhi, August, 2010.

 [vi] Source: JMC & JDA

[vii] As per survey conducting in preparation of RAY, 2011; Source: JMC & JDA.

[viii] City Development Plan (CDP), Jaipur, under JNNURM, Department of Local Self Government, GOR, April, 2006.

[ix] Ibid

[x] Guideline for  Rajiv Awas Yojana (RAY)

[xi] Firsthand experience through field site visits and interaction with slum dwellers