By: Mr. Krishan Tyagi, State Coordinator, PRIA- Rajasthan
Rajasthan has 68,621012 Population with share of 24.89 percent (17,080,776) of urban population[i]. Rajasthan has 184 Urban Local Bodies i.e. 6 municipal corporations & 178 municipal councils/boards. 22.4 percent (38, 26,160) of urban population have to reside in slum areas in Rajasthan[ii].
Jaipur city is state capital of Rajasthan. Jaipur city has 3,073,350 populations with 17% share of total urban population of Rajasthan. Jaipur city has 32.2 percent decadal growth in population.
Urban Poverty and slums is one of the most critical problems in urban development today. In Jaipur too, they are a serious issue. 10 percent of the population is below the poverty line in Jaipur[iii].
6, 88,430 (22.4 %) urban populations have to reside in slum[iv] areas in Jaipur city in 2011[v]. 238 slums[vi] location are listed by administration in 2011. Processes of slum development are jointly administered by Jaipur Municipal Corporation (JMC) in 192 slums and by Jaipur Development Authority (JDA) in 46 slums. Jaipur city has enlisted 59476 slums household[vii].
The biggest katchi basti in Jaipur is located east of Jawahar Nagar along bypass road where about 7000 families are residing. The slum dwellers often get located on any vacant plot in the city convenient to them. These are predominantly the environmentally sensitive locations in the city including forests, flood prone areas, etc. In Jaipur, majority of the slums are located on forestland. 27% are in flood prone areas and 18% along main roads[viii].
The slum improvement programmes have been initiated in the city from 1973 onwards. The main programme includes the National Slum Development Programme (NSDP), Valmiki-Ambedkar Awas Yojana (VAMBAY), BSUP (JNNRUM) and other improvement programmes by JDA. Though, BSUP has great potential to improve the condition of slum dwellers of Jaipur in mission mode. But, unfortunately benefits of BSUP have not been much utilized. However, large numbers of slums have been benefited with basic infrastructure i.e. pucca pathways, public stand posts for drinking water, streetlights, public latrines and open drains, primary health care centres and shelter. Pucca houses were also provided under various initiatives i.e. 4500 pucca houses; those washed away due to heavy floods in 1980s, 1940 houses have been constructed for slum dwellers under VAMBAY[ix].
With an aim of creating a slum-free India, central government has launched phase-1 of Rajiv Awas Yojana (RAY) to facilitate affordable housing for slum dwellers. The Centre would provide financial assistance to States willing to assign property rights to slum dwellers for provision of shelter and basic civic and social services for slum re-development and for creation of affordable housing stock under the RAY scheme. The scheme is expected to cover about 250 cities, mostly with population of more than one lakh across the country by the end of 12th Plan (2017). The scheme will progress at the pace set by the States. All six municipal cooperation (Jaipur, Ajmer-Puskar, Udaipur, Kota, Jodhpur and Bikaner) of Rajasthan are covered in phase-1 of RAY[x].
RAY has inordinate potential to benefits slum dwellers of Jaipur city. It has unique features to eradicate urban poverty like a) entitlement of property b) delisting of habitation from slum list, those have minimum basic facilities ( pacca pathway), water, toilet, pacca house, drainage) and located on non-hazardous areas.
JDA and JMC nodal agencies in Jaipur city have started the preparation to implement RAY. Slum listing and profiling work is in progress to prepare Slum Free City Plan of Action (SCFP). On the basis of first hand finding JMC officials informed half of the slums in Jaipur (about 100) have basic facilities, which are just required legal notification for delisting from exiting list of slums. Herewith, we are mentioning few names of the slums for reference i.e. Bais Godam (Chota & Bada), Ambedkar Nagar (Kartarpura), Hathroi Bawadi and Mukhya Sodala. However, a large number of slum dwellers have to live in very much pathetic condition for example Phush ka Bangala (near main railway station), near Mental hospital Azad Nagar/Raja Park and inside of Amani Sha ka Nala[xi].
RAY is a comprehensive scheme to make Jaipur a slum free city, if it would be executed with motivation and right spirit. State political leaders need to give more attention to avail the benefits of RAY. However, state political leaders seem more keen to provide houses in the rural areas. Under the ambitious scheme named ‘Mukhyamantri Gramin BPL Awas Yojana’ Rs. 3,400 crore had been arranged as a loan from HUDCO for providing dwelling units to 7 lakh BPL families in the next three years. Together with the Indira Awas Yojana works, housing facility would be extended to a total of 10 lakh BPL families in this period. But, those who, reside in slums are needed more attention
5.6 percent of Rajasthan total populations and 22.4 percent of urban populations have to reside in slums; these people also need attention of political leader in order to get benefitted by national scheme like RAY, which has large proportion of share as the grant given by center. If, state political leaders would also pay attention on executing RAY with the same spirit of ‘Mukhyamantri Gramin BPL Awas Yojana’, which government takes even loan to execute the scheme.
[i] Census, 2011
[ii] Estimated population in period of 2011-2017, Source: Report of the Committee on Slum Statistics, GOI, MoHUPA, National Building Organization, New Delhi, August, 2010.
[iii] Source: JMC, 2006; City Development Plan (CDP), Jaipur, under JNNURM, Department of Local Self Government, GOR, April, 2006.
[iv] Definition of slum: Katchi Basties/slums have been thus named in Jaipur, as the rural migrants who inhabit these live in kutcha house in clusters. The houses in the slums are mostly made of walls with mud mortar and roofs. These katchi basties can also be termed as ‘squatter settlements’. These basties lack the basic infrastructure facilities that are required for a decent quality of life. Source: City Development Plan (CDP), Jaipur, under JNNURM, Department of Local Self Government, GOR, April, 2006.
[v] According to Census 2001, Jaipur city has 350,353 populations (15.07% of total urban population). With Estimated 22.4 % growths in Rajasthan Urban population according to Report of the Committee on Slum Statistics, GOI, MoHUPA, National Building Organization, New Delhi, August, 2010.
[vi] Source: JMC & JDA
[vii] As per survey conducting in preparation of RAY, 2011; Source: JMC & JDA.
[viii] City Development Plan (CDP), Jaipur, under JNNURM, Department of Local Self Government, GOR, April, 2006.
[x] Guideline for Rajiv Awas Yojana (RAY)
[xi] Firsthand experience through field site visits and interaction with slum dwellers