Author: terraurban

Affordable Housing for all?

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by Swathi Subramaniam, PRIA

Recently, two day national conclave on “Urban Governance and Housing for All – Opportunities and challenges” was presided over by Shri. M. Venkiah Naidu and concluded by suggesting a 25-point charter for urban planning and management.

 It was estimated that 3 crore houses will be short by the year 2022. GoI aspires to have Housing for All by 2022 with special emphasis on Economically Weaker Society, Lower Income Group et al. The housing and construction contributes to 9% of GDP and supports 250 ancillary industries. A comprehensive housing policy will be formed, implementation of single window scheme for approval of layouts for builders, to improve livelihoods of the urban poor, ensure peoples participation in governance, amendment of rental laws etc. 

Earlier government had also initiated housing for the poor. Rajiv Awas Yojana(RAY) and Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewable Mission (JnNURM) are two big schemes which were rolled out, however the success of the same is still debatable. 

RAY envisages making the country slum free by building the houses for urban slum dwellers. Construction of units under RAY is funded by centre, state and the beneficiary. As per present status of RAY the government has approved construction of 1,20,912 Dwelling Unit all over India at the cost of 6472.06 crore. Cost per unit works out to about Rs 5.3 lakhs. Out of this work on 1,03,643 units are yet to start. Only 1% of the RAY dwelling units have been constructed till now.

In JNNURM, the Integrated Housing and Slum Development Program sub scheme envisages development of affordable houses for poor by allocating 20-25% of all housing project for EWS/LIG. Till now 37% dwelling units have been set up under IHSDP.  While we see some progress in IHSDP, RAY has failed to take off due to various reasons. 

Mobilization of funds posses a huge challenge for building these homes. Due to rising land prices and difficulty in getting bank credit, urban poor are often not able to ‘afford’ decent homes. Often as seen on ground, ensuring that the actual beneficiary lives in his ‘allocated’ house is another challenge most resettlement/redevelopment schemes have to face. Even when the homes are developed and given to the slum dwellers they rent their units and move to another nearby slums. RAY houses being in faraway locations from their existing slums have also made the scheme unattractive to slum dwellers, since it adversely impacts their livelihood.The implementing agencies in many locations have not shown the desired level of priority. Due to combination of all the above factors and we can see that the schemes have failed.

“Affordable Housing for All” attempts to look at all these aspects differently. The housing for all focuses on not just the urban poor but also for the lower middle class and middle class. There is a comprehensive approach by the government in identifying and addressing all the bottlenecks.The incentivisation to private builders for making such homes, using the corporate social responsibility gateway, open doors for private partnership, access to funds for real estate developers and house consumers and FDI in housing are some of the steps the government is working on. Real estate investments trust (REIT) is an important step not only for creating a new investment avenue for investors but also providing much needed liquidity to real estate developers.

While the government is committed, the challenges are too many. Will this increase the complexities of land? How will the scheme create affordable housing in cities with lack of space and skyrocketing land prices? Will it be able to complete on time or remain on-going scheme?


The 25 point charter as concluded at the conclave reads the following:

The Ministries of Urban Development and Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation, Government of India, in partnership with the Governments of State and Union Territories of the Republic of India, held a Conclave of Ministers of Housing & Urban Development of States and Union Territories and Workshop of State/UT Secretaries on “Urban Governance and ‘Housing For All’: Opportunities and Challenges” on 2nd and 3rd July, 2014.

Participated by over 250 delegates including Union, State and Union Territory Ministers for Urban Development, Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation, along with the respective State Principal Secretaries/ Secretaries for Housing & Urban Development, policy-specialists and experts comprising the delegates from Government of India, experts from State Level Nodal Agencies, Housing and Urban Development Corporation, Housing Boards/Corporations, Slum Development Board/Authority, etc.

concluding therefrom that -

WHEREAS decent housing is recognized as a part of the dignity and indicator of quality of life of the individual and with the burgeoning population of cities and towns in India the gap between the supply and demand of the housing has been widening.

AND WHEREAS the total housing shortage was estimated to be 18.78 million as at the beginning of the 2012, and the projected shortage is estimated at 30 million by 2022, if not acted upon decisively.

AND WHEREAS housing and construction industry supports more than 250 ancillary industries and contributes nearly 9% to the GDP.

AND WHEREAS the Government of India aspires to provide “Housing For All” by 2022 (the Goal), the year in which the Republic of India will celebrate its 75th year of Independence.

AND WHEREAS the achievement of this goal requires cooperation among the Central Government, State Governments, Urban Local Bodies, Parastatal agencies, Financial institutions, the Private sector, Civil Society/ NGOs etc.

AND WHEREAS special emphasis has to be laid on EWS and LIG and other vulnerable sections of society such as Slum dwellers, Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribes, Backward Classes, Senior citizens, Persons with disabilities, Widows etc.

AND WHEREAS the Government of India recognizes need for sustainable livelihoods opportunities for urban poor to eliminate poverty in the country.

AND UPON having met at the National Conclave of Ministers of Housing & Urban Development of States and Administrators of Union Territories and Workshop of Administrative Secretaries on “Urban Governance and Housing For All: Opportunities and Challenges” on the 2nd and 3rd day of July, 2014

AND UPON deliberated at length on the means to achieve the said goal, now, therefore, the Ministries of Urban Development, Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation, Government of India and the Departments of Housing and Urban Development of all State Governments & Union Territories of India,

affirming their commitment and hereby resolve

THAT Government of India and States shall join together to provide guidance alongside fiscal and non-fiscal support to achieve the goal of “Housing For All” by 2022.

THAT Government of India, will rationalize approval processes and fund flows to States and Union Territories for Government of India Schemes and Projects.

THAT Government of India, State Governments and Union Territories will empower the third tier of governments (ULBs) as envisaged in the Seventy-Fourth Amendment to the Constitution of India.

THAT the States and Union Territories, will make all efforts to encourage and involve all stakeholders for Affordable Housing to achieve goal of “Housing For All” by 2022.

THAT the States and Union Territories, will make efforts to encourage Affordable Housing and will prepare a Comprehensive Housing Policy, if not already notified.

THAT the States and Union Territories, will complete ongoing works of Affordable Housing along with allied infrastructure under various schemes of Government of India and State Governments expeditiously and allot those houses to beneficiaries.

THAT the States and Union Territories, will make efforts to encourage EWS/LIG housing by examining the possibility of liberal FAR/FSI, Density, Ground Coverage along with TDR and examining the concept of deemed building permissions for pre-approved standard lay out plans and building type plans.

THAT the States and Union Territories, will take up the amendment of Rental Laws to balance the interests of owner and tenant with an objective to encourage Rental Housing in urban areas.

THAT the States and Union Territories, will endeavour to implement single window scheme for approval of lay-out and building permission in all ULBs.

THAT the States and Union Territories, will endeavour to expeditiously prepare statutory spatial/Master Plans for cities and towns and regions, with reservation of zones for Affordable Housing

THAT the States and Union Territories, will make all efforts to improve livelihoods of the urban poor with special focus on their skill development to eliminate urban poverty.

THAT the concerned will ensure peoples’ participation in governance, maintenance of public amenities, transparency in the system, and accountability for proper growth of cities.

THAT the concerned pledge to provide basic amenities like better roads, transport, sanitation, drinking water, and ensure poverty elimination through skill development.

THAT all concerned resolve to actively consider implementing the 25-point Reforms Agenda, through policy measures and legislation, if required, enumerated by the Union Urban Development and Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation Minister, Shri. M. Venkaiah Naidu, in his inaugural speech.

THAT all concerned unanimously agree to work together to achieve the target of “ Housing For All” by the year 2022

(M. Venkaiah Naidu)

Minister for Urban Development, Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation, Government of India, For and on behalf of the Delegates of the Conclave of Ministers of Housing & Urban Development of States and Union Territories Workshop of State/UT Secretaries on “Urban Governance and ‘Housing For All’: Opportunities and Challenges” on the 3rd day of July, 2014

Terraurban – monthly digest : July 2014

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Below is a quick look at all the action on Terraurban in the month of July. You may also like to download the digest by clicking at: Terraurban- July monthly digest

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Health for urban poor and the community voices.

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by Abhishek Jha, PRIA

Very recently Government of Bihar, approved the implementation of centrally sponsored Health for Urban Poor program in the State.

Abhishek in the article below is sharing a ‘conversation’ with the urban poor community representative organisation – Settlement Improvement Committee (SIC) regarding the same scheme. PRIA has facilitated constitution of these SICs in various urban poor settlements across the country since 2012.


PRIA Facilitator: So finally you all should be congratulated as you have something to cheer for since the government of Bihar has finally approved the implementation of centrally sponsored health for urban poor scheme.

SIC member- Thank you sir, it is really good news for us that government is concerned about the health of urban poor now.

SICmember (2):It is not so good news, it is a complete hogwash by the government.

Facilitator: What makes you think so?

SIC member :I personally feel it is actually an effort by the government and its agencies to dissolve the burning issue of housing for the urban poor since they have failed to address it predominantly.

Everyone in chorus: Yes it’s true, even we think so; government is trying to fool us by doing so and launching programs like health for urban poor.

The chorus generates a bit of aggression among the people present in the meeting and they say “ if need be we can show  it to the government how healthy are we by protesting and fighting against the government, which has failed straightaway to implement housing programs even after completing surveys several times.”

Taking the discussion further, people felt strongly that, even though they often use their hard earned money for addressing health issues,  they have always have the options of visiting government hospitals as they live in a city and what the government is overlooking is  addressing the root causes which work as catalysts  for health issues among the urban poor.

If we diagnose the community discussion further, it is hard to term them wrong. The status of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene which are also termed as core basic services remains pathetic in these urban poverty pockets and undoubtedly these are the major factors which ultimately decides the health of urban poor. Defecating in open, or in unhygienic community toilets, drinking untreatedwater makes people vulnerable to a large extent towards diseases, which obviously needs to be addressed first instead of constructing Primary Health Centres (PHCs) in these settlements.

Apart from this, a sneak-peek in to previous centrally sponsored schemes (specifically addressing urban poverty) in the state will add more metal to the collective reasoning made by the community. Nationally sponsored schemes like BSUP, IHSPDP (under JnNURM) didn’t show very encouraging results in the state and very recent Rajiv AwasYojna (RAY) has failed to take off in the state till date.  Unavailability of hindrance free land in the urban areas has been cited as one of the major reasons behind infectivity in implementation of these housing schemes. At the same time this forces us to rethink how government is planning to implement the construction of PHCs (for every 50,000 population in the city) when they see land as unavailable entity.     




Shaping of children’s dreams at an International Platform

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by Aishwarya Das Pattnaik, Humara Bachpan Campaign

Running high on speculative delays of gaining a passport and the series of formalities attached took everyone on a whirlpool ride. Many blockages in the form of authority rigidness to piles of paper work and running to get more papers checked was a task that was waived off gently by the dedicated Humara Bachpan Campaign team. A national campaign for safe and healthy environment for children living in Urban Poverty. Even after some hectic and untimely occurring of such magnitude did not stop the sheer willingness to approach our final goal to set the dream of the 7 children from the remotest slums of Odisha for an International Conference to be held at Caux, Switzerland. The CATS (Children as Actors for Transforming the Society) Conference was a platform where child leaders from across the globe were selected to demonstrate their ideas and exhibit as Actors for uniting the fragmented society. The conference format helped to facilitate the unpacking of crucial concepts, issues, practices and experiences of both children and those working with them. Engagement by the young participants included running some of the dynamic minds for discussions.

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The conference also included some approaches of Learning for Well-being which is the process of fully engaging and expressing who we are as individuals within our common realms in social, societal and environmental contexts. Initiatives of Change, Child to Child and the Universal Education Foundation were associated partners for this event.

 Children are the prism through which policies must be crafted. Their ideas and views must be taken into cognizance while drafting policies at State, Central or International avenues. Their participation is indeed of much valuable importance as they are the pallbearers of the future generation. Also, a child’s reflection is considered to be coated with innocent demands and these demands are well indeed of grave relevance but get blurred most of the time. And finally half-baked reforms demand charters and policies are formed. Hence, the latest JNnuRM and RAY initiative of the UPA-II Government though a very appreciable stand but was objectionable as they turned a blindfold to child friendly components. And the result of the end picture was not as it was hoped for.

Nevertheless, Humara Bachpan Campaign along with the support from its partners and Aid support from Bernard van Leer Foundation, helped to make the voices of these child leaders heard on an International pedestal. The excited and highly talented child advocates had many interactive sessions with their fellow contemporaries from around the world. They not only made their views and shared their insights but pulled a large crowd of fans for themselves as well. Their vivacity and utmost diligence to act as “advocates for change” called for due appreciation from across the many participants present at the conference. Their work which they had performed for their community gained paramount support from the audience and was lauded at the same time. They were extolled to work further for the cause and bring sustainable changes in their fight for better living condition for the Urban poor. As the bourgeoisies has climbed the ladder and a vast gulf has been formed, their needs and demands are given partial heed but not implemented properly.

The Housing and Urban Development Department which is the nodal department of Odisha was formulated to ensure planned development of cities and towns. It’s objectives were to make economically vibrant provisions and sustainable public infrastructure which includes affordable housing and livelihood opportunities for all sections of life. But statistics shows that 84% of department budget in average during the last 5 years goes for establishment, maintenance and house keeping related expenditure, while only 16% have been allocated for creation of new assets against rapid urbanisation in the state of Odisha. While the urban poor populace has reached sky high limits against rapid urbanization their allocation towards new plans and creation of new assets and utilization of budgets pose a double challenge for the urban poor development. And in due process a child’s privileges have not been paid heed. 

But these children are not interested to sit ideal. They table their demands and speak for their rights and demands. They even propagate for change in their own communities and build steps for improvement. There active participation in the child clubs as they hold discussions and debates on concerned matter of importance. They have indeed set a movement which has gained widespread attention from authorities and the society at large. This small attempt to bring a more healthy and holistic future for the children was not only the prior goal of the Humara Bachpan Campaign, but to help to induce a chartered definitive change in the outlook of people was its indubitable final aim.

The Caux exposure surely has incited more zeal among the child advocates. They will continue with their will to stand by their cause. This conference has not only made them believe that they are not sidelined in their society but that, “ Dreams are meant to be dreamt. And Dreams are meant to be the next Reality.”

Walking down the Urban Poor’s Lane

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By Shivani Singh, PRIA

There is a popular belief that ‘seeing is believing’, when we see something from our eyes the tendency to believe in that particular thing increases. Also similar to this statement is another saying that ‘a picture speaks a thousand words’. The idea is not to undermine the importance of writing and other forms of media but to present an altogether different way of sensitizing the unconverted populace on the problems related to urban poverty and urban governance. In the city of Delhi as well as other cities there are organizations and groups that have been formed who organize tours, walks, exposure visits to slum areas and many of them even earn out of this venture. It is their way of mobilizing funds. The idea seems to be interesting as such tours or walks can be organized in the slums where organizations are working with urban poor and have established a healthy rapport with the community overs the years.

Following are the examples of exposures, tours and walks that are being organized.

  1. SEWA Academy- Exposure and Dialogue Programme

Exposure and Dialogue Programmes (EDP) is a means to sensitize and organize members, colleagues and institutional leaders towards the poverty and work – related issues faced by our members. Exposure and Dialogue Programmes use the strategies of immersion, reflection and dialogue to expose senior level technocrats and bureaucrats to the realities of the people whom their policies and projects might affect. Accompanied by local facilitators, these senior officials spend a few nights in the home of a rural orurban SEWA member. They follow her daily routine at home and at work in order to understand poverty from her perspective. After the exposure, participants reflect on their experiences and enter a process of dialogue aimed at analyzing, understanding and even changing policies to make them more focused on the needs and reality of women workers in the informal economy.

More details can be searched on

  1. Salam Balak Trust- City Walk

The Salaam Baalak Trust City Walk aims to make the story of the children of the street heard and to give a view of their world through their eyes. Participants of City Walk get to go on a journey through the enchanting streets of the inner city of Paharganj and the area around New Delhi railway station, led by a child who was once living and working on the streets. This walk takes on a journey through the backstreets of Delhi with a child who has been fully trained as a local guide. It’s a unique way of providing an insight into the lives of these children and an opportunity for them to improve their communication and speaking skills.

The confidence and witty smiles of these guides have little trace of the years spent on the streets of New Delhi. The past is however, very much present on the walk. For the guides, it is a walk down the memory lane, the places held dear to them and how they faced the odds to survive to be where they stand proudly today. Whether the guide is Satender, Ajay, Iqbal, Tabrez, Tariq or any other City Walk Guide, feel free to question and learn as much as we can of life on the streets. We might realize, as wewalk along, that the distance you covered was much greater than that between the New Delhi Railway Station and the SBT office.

More details can be searched on

  1. Reality Tours and Travel-Slum Tours

Dharavi Tours, visitors see on foot why Dharavi is the heart of small scale industry in Mumbai. Through our tour through ‘India’s largest slum’ visitors experience a wide range of these activities: recycling, pottery-making, embroidery, baking, soap-making, leather tanning, poppadom-making and many more.

When passing through the residential spaces, wecan feel the sense of community and spirit that exists the area. People from all over India live in Dharavi and a tour through its narrow alleys is quite an adventure- the visitors leave with an enlightened sense of the purpose and determination that exists in the area.

One of the main objectives of Dharavi tours is to break down the negative attitudes that many people have towards people from less developed communities- particularly the slums. The common stereotype – often reinforced by media and popular culture – of idle, passive and often criminal slum-dwellers is something we strive to change.

The company is a social business. 80% of all profits is used for the activities of sister organization and NGO (charity) Reality Gives. What it means in reality is that between 25% and 35% of the income generated by Reality Tours is used for Reality Gives’ activities.

Reality Gives runs a community centre and Youth Empowerment Program in the Dharavi area, and provides English language support at a local government school. They also support projects run by other NGOs in the Dharavi area.

More details can be searched on

  1. Slum Walk by PETE

This walk is organised by Pete, an NGO. This is a guided tour through the slum for 2-3 hours. We get to see thousands on familites living there. While in the slum, we can interact and listen to urban poor’s personal story of survival and life. This tour costs 500 rupees and the funds collected for walk goes towards running 3 schools named nirvan  school in Kathputli  colony One vocational school for womens living in slums (women empowerment),Kindergarden (For street kids) and primary (non formal education) Plus with community kitchen to provide kids midday meals everyday and supporting their other ongoing and future projects , a  More details can be searched on

More information, you can visit website

Nepal initiates a move towards child-friendly governance: Can India follow the footsteps of its neighbouring country?

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By-Raksha Sharda, Humara Bachpan Campaign

Children living in urban poverty are not only deprived of affordable housing but also basic services such as electricity, safe water, paved roads, public space and poor infrastructure in terms of schools and health care facilities. Children are exposed to multiple risks in cities: polluted air, dirty water, traffic accidents, lack of sanitation, inadequate nutritional intake, garbage dumps surrounding their living areas which also turn out to be their playgrounds.

There is a need to turn focus and attention to children in urban areas than has not been done so far. To address the issues of children and mainstreaming their needs in the urban agenda UNICEF and the UN Habitat launched the Child Friendly Cities Initiative in 1996. The initiative has now evolved into a worldwide movement with municipalities in different countries promoting and implementing initiatives to realize the rights of a child. In all of these countries, authorities are working to ensure that children’s rights are reflected in policies, laws, programmes and budgets at the local level.

The phrase “child-friendly” is multi-dimensional and comprehensive. Firstly, it is about the attitudes and sensitization of child friendly issues, secondly, it is related to child friendly behaviors, and thirdly it is concerned with child friendly planning and infrastructures as well as publications. A tripartite bond can only help to create a child friendly environment. It is a city, or more generally a system of local governance, committed to fulfilling children’s rights, which includes: influencing the decision about their city, express their opinion, participate in family, community and social life, receive basic services, walk and play safely, live in an unpolluted environment be an equal citizen of their city and a well-planned indicators of quality of life. In a child-friendly city, children are active agents, their voices and opinions are considered and influence the decision making process.

Following these guidelines Nepal along with the support from UNICEF took a key initiative of Child-Friendly Local Governance (CFLG) which seeks to put children at the core of the development agenda of local bodies, line agencies and civil societies. CFLG provides a framework or an overall guidance to the government in realizing and mainstreaming the rights of children which includes survival, development, protection and participation into the local government system, structure, policies and process. It facilities and coordinates the realization of child-rights at and between the national and sub-national level. UNICEF has been working closely with the Ministry of Federal Affairs and Local Development (MoFALD), to develop the CFLG strategy that promotes all stakeholders at the local level to plan together to achieve the results for children as outlined in the strategy. The strategy is also being supported by various NGOs to adopt a bottom up approach for promoting planning for children and ensuring the participation of children in these processes. A child-friendly governance system is a stepping stone to ensure that the cities also become child-friendly.

Another key initiative taken by GoN is the establishment of Center Child Welfare Board (CCWB) and District Child Welfare Boards (DCWBs) in 75 districts of Nepal which carries out massive programs to aware and sensitizes children and community on child rights; protect children from abuses and violations and legal support. Other initiatives made by the Government of Nepal (GoN) include: development and implementation of 10 year child development plan (2004-2014), declaring the National Child Policy (2012).
At the policy level, the MoFALD convinced the GoN to officially endorse CFLG as an integral part of its Local Governance and Community Development Program (LGCDP) which is a multi-stakeholder governance programme between Government of Nepal and thirteen development partners. Secondly, CFLG also got reflected in the GoN’s Three Year Interim Plan. In terms of budgetary provision, MoFALD ensure a mandatory provision of 10% for women, 10% for children and 15% for CFLG initiatives specified in the Village Development Committee (VDC) and District Development Committee (DDC) block grant guidelines endorsed by the Cabinet. CFLG national framework also includes provision for 15% of the overall local body resources to be allocated for CFLG initiatives. Further, Municipal authorities have committed NRs 23 million (US$ 3.1 million) for CFLG initiatives over the next five years. These efforts are commendable and should act as an eye opener for other countries including India. Though, monetary provisions alone to do not guarantee progress, but GoN have made tremendous efforts to ensure effective implementation of CFLG.

At the local level, CFLG has been rolled out in 39 districts, 15 municipalities and 300 VDCs. Children are making their voices heard through 13,291 active Child Clubs in over 52 districts, and as members of the 40,000 Ward Citizens Forums, in the VDC, DDC and Municipal planning committees as well. With 27 sectoral and 12 institutional indicators centred on child’s right, municipalities and VDCs implementing CFLG are taking steps to ensure that their cities/towns are child-friendly.

Municipalities have started looking at the process of development through the lens of a child wherein children voices and their participation in decision-making bodies is encouraged. In Dang district, for example, the municipality has made arrangements to allocate open spaces for parks. Child clubs in Biratnagar, which is the second largest city after Kathmandu have helped the municipality identify children missing out on education and immunization. These child club members also helped increase the enrolment of Muslim girls who had not been attending school due to the schools’ restriction on school uniforms. As soon as the children managed to convince Biratnagar and the District Education Office to allow those girls to wear salwar kameez instead of skirts, the girls started going to school. Biratnagar Municipality in partnership with Biratnagar child-clubs ensured that their voices were reflected in key local level policy documents and program interventions.

Real ‘child-friendliness’ can only be achieved through a long-term commitment of child friendly policies and the commitment levels of all concerned duty bearers and political will to the implementation of child rights. Unplanned urban sprawl, inaccessible housing, non-existence of basic services and loss of open green spaces has not only decreased the living standards of the people but it also increased its vulnerability to disasters. Despite these developmental challenges, Nepal is encouraging CFLG making it a national strategy and laying the foundation for building child-friendly cities. While our neighbouring country is taking strong initiatives to look the world through children’s eyes, encourage children participation, listen to their voices and respect children as human beings with their rights and responsibilities, this should act as an eye opener to the policy makers, bureaucrats, municipalities, civil society organizations in India to initiate towards a child-friendly local governance and ensure coordination and collaboration among various agencies leading the way toward a child-friendly governance and cities.

Urban dialogue on poverty issues at Bodh Gaya

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Dalit Vikas Abhiyan Samiti (DVAS) and Participatory Research in Asia (PRIA) are jointly working on the issues of urban poverty in state of Bihar and in specific in the city of Gaya. DVAS and PRIA, on 16 July 2014 organised a unique forum to bring forth an exchange dialogue between community, civil society, service providers and academicians.

Executive from the ULB, Vice- Chairperson ULB, City Manager, Dy. Director Directorate of social security, Chairperson Bihar Economic Council Gaya, President Social Sciences Department, Magadh University, and Elected Representatives from ULB, Members of SICs and representatives from media houses actively participated in the consultation.

Objective of the urban poverty and governance consultation at Gaya

The city of Bodh Gaya is well known for its rich heritage and culture which draws thousands of tourists from all over the world. Over the period of time the city has given way to unplanned urbanization resulting in development of slums and slum like structures. If we refer the 2001 census data it says, there are 4672 HHs living in the slums of Bodh Gaya Nagar Panchayat , further according to Census 2011 data 249HHs are homeless , who are living in Bodh Gaya Nagar Panchayat. However, as per 2006 report of Nagar Panchayat Bodh Gaya number of households living in slums is 3500. As per the survey conducted under SPUR in December 2010, the town had 18 slum pockets housing 3109 households and a population of 20875.

With a new government at the centre which has a strong urban focus and an agenda of making 100 smart cities, issues of urban poverty need to be urgently addressed in the city of Gaya. However the government has shared no such plans as of now. Instead the talk is about large scale and green field developments in the country which the space and provisions for the urban poor in these larger schemes have not been articulated yet.

PRIA had recently done a research study to evaluate in ‘economic terms’ the contribution of the urban poor to the cities they belong to. The major finding of the study was that the urban poor actively contribute about 7-8% to the city economy, however are still neglected by the city in respect to provisions, services and infrastructure. In State of Bihar the state of affairs is no different. Centrally sponsored schemes of Rajiv Awas Yojana (RAY) and Swarna Jayanati Shahri Rozgar Yojana (SJSRY) for the urban poor have not been successful.

DVAS in collaboration with PRIA has been working in the slums of Bodh Gaya since past two and half years, for the collectivization and mobilisation of the urban poor community in Bodh Gaya. Exercise of slum listing and profiling, formation of settlement/slum improvement committees (SICs) in various urban poor pockets of Gaya have been the two major interventions by PRIA and DVAS. These interventions have helped in bringing forth various specific issues related to the urban poor in the city, has helped in generating a much needed database, understand the gaps in access to rights and entitlements of the urban poor in Gaya. SICs have been vital in the community to raise their voice on these issues and also to act as a bridge and mediator between the service providers and the community at large.

In the light of the above, the objective of this consultation at Gaya was twofold:
• To bring multiple stakeholders (CSO, State, Urban Poor, ULB, Academia, Media etc.) on a common platform to deliberate and discuss issues, challenges and way forward on urban poverty issues of Bodh Gaya and urban poor in general.
• To build alliances and explore collaborations in seeking solutions to urban poverty issues in Bodh Gaya

The consultation was successful in bringing forth various issues and perspectives of all stakeholders associated. Some of the key aspects discussed in the consultation were:

Community members elaborated upon various immediate issues and problems they are facing. Women in specific spoke about lack of sanitation, services, adequate health infrastructure and social evils. The community leaders recognised that all community members need to collectivise and raise their voice against such issues. Knowledge and participation is the need of the day for the urban poor to avail their rights.
It was bought forth into notice that failure of many schemes has often been due to lack of awareness and knowledge dissemination. The service providers (government) and the beneficiaries both should take onus for the same.
The service provider – Nagar Panchayat of Bodh Gaya, also elaborated upon the various governance challenges it faces and requested for a better coordination with the community. Nagar Panchayat’s representative also highlighted various on-going and forthcoming development activities in the city such as infrastructural development in 4 urban poor settlements, installation of solar lights, provision of social infrastructure, provision of urinals etc. in urban poor settlements. However, the issue of providing adequate housing to poor, as elaborated upon by the representative is dictated by the lack of available land in the city.
• Representative from Directorate of social security, Gaya shared several important information with the community dwellers that would facilitate them to avail various schemes and benefits under various schemes as applicable in the State and the city.
• The consultation as a whole was a successful step to bring forth all stakeholders on a common platform and to work in unison on urban poverty issues. This interaction however has to be continuous one to facilitate learning, appropriate service delivery, accountability and participation towards an equal and just development of Gaya.


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By Shivani Singh, PRIA

India has over 40 labour laws but the irony is that the majority of labour force is in the informal sector and is deprived of legal rights. Though there are Labour Legislations that have provisions within the laws for the informal sector workers but majority of labour force is outside the purview of the Labour Legislations and hence are deprived of rights and protections. The write up elaborates the situation of informal sector in India and the limitation of Unorganized Workers Social Security Act, 2008 to do justice to the informal sector workers.

I. Unorganized Sector in India

Majority of the workforce in India are in the informal economy, also referred to as the unorganized sector in the country. In 2004, the Government of India set up the National Commission for Enterprises in the Unorganised Sector (NCEUS) to examine the issues of the informal economy. The NCEUS adopted the following definition of the “unorganized sector.” “The unorganized sector consists of all unincorporated private enterprises owned by individuals or households engaged in the sale and production of goods and services operated on a proprietary or partnership basis and with less than 10 total workers.” (NCEUS)

According to data available in 2005, the unorganized sector accounted for 395 million persons or 86 per cent of the work force. Most of these workers (253 million) were engaged in agriculture and who are mainly self-employed. Together with the 29 million in unorganized employment in the formal sector, there were 422.6 million persons in the unorganized economy (sector plus employment) who comprise 92.4 per cent of the work force. (NCEUS)

The lack of a comprehensive legislation to provide for a minimum condition of work is a severe lacuna, sought to be addressed unsuccessfully over several decades. Nearly every commission set up by the Government to study the unorganised sector has recommended it. The First National Commission for Labour (1991) proposed a comprehensive legislation for agricultural workers and the Ministry of Labour drafted a bill for regulation of employment, conditions of service and for the provision of welfare measures for agricultural workers in 1997. Likewise, the Second National Commission for Labour (2002) proposed an Act to consolidate and amend the laws relating to the regulation of employment and workers’ welfare in the unorganised sector in India and provided for social security cover and welfare, regulation of employment and conditions of work, as well as promotion of livelihoods. The legislation intended to cover employments, both in the agricultural and non-agricultural sectors, which were listed in the Schedule appended to the proposed Act. (Ministry of Labour and Employment)

More recently, the National Commission for Enterprises in the Unorganised Sector (NCEUS) in a bid to extend decent work to all in the unorganised sector recommended two comprehensive legislations for unorganised agricultural and non-agricultural workers, combining all aspects of the conditions of work, including social security. The draft bills recommended several minimum conditions of work for unorganized workers, thus prescribing minimum standards, including: (i) an eight-hour working day with at least a half-hour break, (ii) one paid day of rest per week, (iii) a statutory national minimum wage for all wage workers and home workers, (iv) penal interest on delayed payment of wages, (v) no deductions from wages in payment of fines, (vi) the right to organize, (vii) non-discrimination on the basis of sex, caste, religion, HIV/AIDs status and place of origin, (viii) adequate safety equipment at the workplace and compensation for accidents, and (ix) protection from sexual harassment, provision of childcare, and provision of basic amenities at the workplace. (NCEUS)
More recently, the first step to provide comprehensive social security cover to all workers was facilitated through enacting the Unorganised Workers Social Security Act, 2008. This Act has the potential to cover all “workers” including the self-employed for the purposes of ensuring access to basic social security although working hours, safety and employment relations continue to be unregulated for these workers.

One one hand the Act is respite but it comes with certain limitations. That are mentioned below:

II. Limitation of Unorganized Workers Social Security Act, 2008 (Sankaran T. S.)

i. Neither agricultural labourers have been brought under the purview of the Act nor a separate bill for agricultural labourers tabled. But, the minister claims that they are also covered.
ii. NCEUS had prepared two Bills, one on social security and the other on working conditions. The latter has been dumped and the Bill passed confines itself only to social security in its most diluted/truncated form.
iii. The 2008 Act appears to have excluded vast sections of unorganized workers like agricultural labourers, the unorganized labourers in the organised sector including contract labourers and the informal labourers in the formal sector, the anganwadi workers, para workers like ASHAs and parateachers, and those the cooperative sector.
iv. The Act is applicable only to a small section of unorganized labourers whose income limit is expected to be notified by the government. There is every possibility that the subsequent notification will include parameters to exclude good number of unorganised workers from the applicability of the law and the schemes.
v. The passage of the Act is not accompanied by any legally stipulated guarantee for the establishment of a Central Welfare fund.
vi. There is no provision for penalties in the Act to punish those employers who violate it.
vii. “Social Security” to the unorganized workers has been narrowed down to ten paltry social security schemes. Most of these schemes like old age pension or maternity benefit (or even the meagre Bima Yojana, for that matter) is already existing/ongoing schemes and there is nothing new in them.
viii. As a result of dropping the Bill on conditions of work prepared by the Arjun Sengupta Commission, working conditions of unorganised workers including hours of work, mandatory holidays, industrial safety, job security, industrial relations and trade union rights, guaranteeing minimum wages, bonus etc., would remain unregulated and unenforced.
ix. The national and state boards for unorganised workers provided for in the Act are advisory bodies and like the National Labour Commission they are toothless bodies. While implementation is left to the district bureaucracy, there is no independent enforcement or watchdog/oversight body with representation from unions and there is no appellate authority even.
x. Not only there is no penalty against the defaulting employers, there would be no action against the bureaucrats who refuse to register any unorganised worker under any of the twin scheduled schemes.
xi. The special problems of migrant workers, especially inter-State migrants, among unorganised workers, especially the problem of security, has been totally ignored by the Act.
xii. The special problem of women unorganised workers do not figure in the Bill. The problems of security, sexual harassment, proper accommodation for migrant women workers, issues relating to nature of work and industrial safety, gender wage gap, non-payment of wages, childcare facilities at work spot etc., have been totally neglected.


Ministry of Labour and Employment. (n.d.). Retrieved from
NCEUS. (n.d.). Retrieved from
Sankaran, K. (2014). WIEGO Law Pilot Project on the Informal Econom. WEIGO.
Sankaran, T. S. (n.d.). South Asia Citizen Web. Retrieved from

Current practicality, future idealism

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Source: Gautam Bhatia, The Hindu

Computer managed smart cities comparable to anything in the West sound too good to be true. However, if the new package fails to carry with it the larger cast of the urban dispossessed, and the millions of rural poor who continue to become the urban dispossessed, the future will see more daily battles over resources

Look outside your window in any direction and you will immediately be aware of the degraded life and ramshackle condition of the Indian city: buildings encroach on public land, telephone lines are dug, rubble is piled in the fast lane, cars are parked on sidewalks while people walk on roads, broken unfinished housing appears on the sightline, tenements lean against boundary walls … you will sense the unbridgeable gap between people’s needs and civic reality. In numbers, transport, housing, commerce, aesthetics, what people want and what the city offers are opposing, often unmanageable compromises.

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A ‘smart’ idea for urban ills?

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Source: A. Srivasthsan, The Hindu

The urban future depends on making cities intelligent, and that applies equally to both new and old parts of the city.

Given the fact that the existing cities, which accommodate a bulk of the population, waste a lot of resources and are energy-inefficient, they urgently require smart solutions. It would be better to treat the smart city proposal by the government as a kind of urban experiment or a prototype, whose lessons and experience could be used to develop cities in general.

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